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Europe’s Oldest Pyramid Complex
Pyramid of the Sun
the past two years we have seen the pages of history slowly being
rewritten, and Bosnia may soon lay claim to having the world's
oldest pyramids—which shouldn't come as a surprise, seeing
the area has the oldest European civilisation as well.
new pyramid paradigm
the past 10 years, the old paradigm that pyramids could only be
found in Egypt and Central America has been substituted by a new
perspective, which is that pyramids are a global phenomenon and
have been built by numerous civilisations in several ages. The
Pyramid of Cholula in Mexico is now regarded as the largest, though
not the tallest, and the pyramid complex at Caral in Peru is the
oldest, conservatively dated to 3100 BCE. Most of these findings
have received little to no media attention, and even many historians
are unaware of these new facts. But one new pyramid complex has
been in many headlines, even making appearances on The Daily Show
with Jon Stewart: the Bosnian pyramids.
was described by Stewart as the best thing to happen to Bosnia
"since…ever" began in 2005, when Bosnian-born
entrepreneur Semir "Sam" Osmanagic was shown the enigmatic
Visocica hill that rises above the town of Visoko, near the capital
Sarajevo. Could this be a pyramid? Osmanagic decided to invest
in a preliminary geological survey, which concluded that further
exploration of the structure was recommended. Furthermore, when
his own book on the Mayan pyramids fell open on a page showing
a photograph of the Pyramid of the Sun in Teotihuacán,
Mexico, Osmanagic thought the resemblance to be so similar that
he decided to call Visocica "Pyramid of the Sun", too,
and the name has stuck. With this, the otherwise tranquil Visoko
has become one of the most controversial archaeological sites
in the world—controversial because just about everyone involved
in pyramid research has given an opinion on the subject.
Dr Robert Schoch, who adheres to the theory that the Sphinx is
thousands of years older than accepted, said he believes the structures
to be natural formations. Dr Zahi Hawass, Secretary General of
the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, had to give his opinion
as well, committing a number of faux pas along the way. For example,
when Dr Hawass was asked by Osmanagic to provide the name of an
expert, he offered Dr Ali Barakat. A geologist, Dr Barakat meticulously
investigated the structures for 42 days in 2006 and concludes
that they are man-made. However, Dr Hawass pretended afterwards
that he'd had nothing to do with the Bosnian saga!
Barakat is not alone in speaking in favour of the man-made nature
of Visocica and other apparent pyramids nearby. Archaeologist
Dr Nabil Mohamed Swelim, holder of three PhDs and the discoverer
of four pyramids in Egypt, visited the structures in September
2007 and he, too, concludes that they are man-made "pyramid
hills", as distinct from pyramids. A pyramid hill is a natural
hill that is artificially enhanced to conform to the pyramid structure,
whereas a pyramid is built from the bottom up.
is also a growing and impressive list of scientists—mostly
from Egypt, Eastern Europe and Russia—who conclude that
these structures are man-made. But their voices, specifically
in the western media, have gone unheard.
the First International Scientific Conference, Bosnian Valley
of the Pyramids (ICBP), held on 25–30 August 2008, received
minimal exposure despite the participation of the likes of Dr
Alaa Shaheen, archaeologist and Dean of the Faculty of Archaeology
at Cairo University, Dr Hassan El-Saady, historian and Vice Dean
of the Faculty of Arts at Alexandria University, Dr Mostafa El-Abbadi,
founder of the modern library in Alexandria (the Bibliotheca Alexandrina)
and Dr Mohamed Ibrahim Aly, Egyptologist and archaeologist in
the Faculty of Arts at Ein-Shams University, Cairo. Instead, the
few reports in the western media focused on the critics, who labelled
the conference "pseudo-scientific". What equally was
not reported is that invitations from Dr Swelim to the critics
to attend were ignored by those critics.
most avowed critic of the Bosnian pyramids in the western world
is archaeology professor Anthony Harding, of the University of
Exeter, UK. He voiced his opinion on the matter as early as April
2006, and drove around the town of Visoko for a few minutes in
June that year, afterwards labelling the Visocica pyramid a natural
formation. One might therefore think that the good professor had
then moved on to other fields, but no.
after the ICBP in August 2008, Professor Harding approached some
of those who made the official conclusion/ recommendation (which
is that the site requires and warrants continued excavation),
stating that the archaeological establishment has "condemned"
the Bosnian pyramids as "a fraud". Harding has never
put any hard scientific facts on any table to support such a serious
allegation. In the program for the European Association of Archaeologists
September 2008 Malta conference, he summed up the discovery as
the "Bosnian pyramid fiasco", which "has drawn
attention to the way in which the creation of fictitious pasts
can be used for political and nationalist ends". Still, if
Harding is so convinced that the pyramids are fraudulent, then
why waste time pursuing the story let alone approaching some of
this article, we contacted Professor Harding for comments but
he did not reply. In previous interviews, however, he made it
clear that he had an "opinion" about these pyramids
before going to Visoko.
is also clear that Harding, as the president of the European Association
of Archaeologists, sees himself as the leader of a scientific
crusade against so-called "pseudo-archaeology"—the
Bosnian pyramids project being one of the few crusades he is able
to wage, with Osmanagic as the sinner who goes against God's commands.
why all of this controversy? As with any discovery, and especially
the resultant publicity, exaggerated claims are made—or
fabricated—by the media. Indeed, in this case, early media
reports claimed that the structures are 12,000 years old, whereupon
the sceptics immediately tried to argue that this claim had been
made by Osmanagic himself. Some observers even argued that the
pyramids are extraterrestrial in origin. Such statements seem
to have shocked Professor Harding the most, and he holds Osmanagic
responsible for them all.
insights into the controversy came from American historian Merima
Bojic, who at first extensively interviewed leading protagonists
on both sides of the debate and later offered her full support
for Osmanagic's Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Foundation. In a blog
of 23 April 2008, titled "Aliens to Science", she wrote
especially in regard to the western scientific media's handling
of the pyramids issue:
American journalists such as Colin Woodard and John Bohannon have
also joined this opposition and published false articles about
Mr Osmanagic. Woodard referred to Visoko as a nationalistic enclave
of the Bosnian Muslims and seemingly tried to connect Mr Osmanagic
to such a nationalistic movement as well. He falsely claimed that
Dr Barakat and Dr Schoch measured the pyramids and concluded that
they fail to perfectly align with the cardinal points. The truth
is that the Geodetic Institute of Bosnia–Herzegovina conducted
its own analysis and found that they did in fact align with the
cardinal points. Woodard himself also attempted to intimidate
Dr Swelim and had the audacity to email the definition of 'pyramid'.
Bohannon, who writes for the prominent Science magazine, was also
an author of false articles that were so bizarre they do not even
merit mention. How, it may occur to one, does Bohannon come to
write for such a well-respected and prominent magazine devoted
to scientific fact while all information he gathers comes directly
from the gossip journalist [Vuc] Bacanovic? Not surprisingly,
Woodard does the same."
Bacanovic, in the gossip magazine Dani, called Dr Swelim "senile"
and "a fool"—terms which are seldom used in scientific
short, one group of people has decided to quickly rule out the
possibility that these structures are man-made. These people now
go to extremes in trying to preserve their names, reputations
and beliefs. They pretend this is not happening and they hope
it will go away. Alas for them, but fortunately for everyone else,
that is unlikely to be the case.
is within the catchment area of what Lithuanian–American
archaeologist Dr Marija Gimbutas (1921–94) labelled "Old
Europe", a civilisation also known as the Vinca culture.
This culture is dated to roughly 6000–3000 BCE, and many
believe that it inspired other cultures, including the Sumerian
Ubaid period. Examples of Vinca statues have been found as far
west as southern France. As recently as November 2007, archaeologists
excavating a settlement in southern Serbia, believed to be at
least 7,000 years old, announced that this civilisation had great
expertise in creating bronze artefacts—a discovery that
requires a radical re-dating of the Bronze Age.
Still, few have heard of the Vinca culture, and here, too, western
bias might well come into play. Indeed, the old pyramid paradigm
is not merely being held in place with sticky tape, but the notion
that Sumer and Egypt were the cradles of civilisation is one that
should have been thrown out of the history books many generations
ago. In this instance, the personal crusade of Australian-born
archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe (1892–1957) forced the
Vinca culture to be seen as an outlying cultural entity influenced
by more "civilised" forces. Childe's dogmatic stance
and clout meant that the Vinca culture received only scant attention
and today remains largely unknown.
direct relevance is the fact that Vinca artefacts have been found
in the town of Visoko, and it is therefore a strong possibility
that Old Europe may also have been a pyramid-building culture.
This conclusion might seem surprising and novel, but in essence
it shouldn't be controversial.
the pyramids' construction
excavations on northern face of Pyramid of the Sun
what is the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids? The Pyramid of the
Sun, which dominates the skyline over Visoko, has been the main
focus of investigations. The structure does not merely look man-made,
but with a height of 220 metres it is much higher than the Great
Pyramid of Giza and thus would be the tallest pyramid in the world.
is the case with the Great Pyramid, each side of the Visocica
Pyramid of the Sun is perfectly aligned with the cardinal points.
Indeed, as one approaches Visoko, it is hard to believe that it
took until 2005 before someone seriously pondered the notion that
the hill could be a pyramid. In fact, in 1984, one local author,
Pavao Andelic, referred to Visocica as a "town pyramid",
but nothing further was done to investigate the claim.
bottom of the Visocica Pyramid has been built upon, and the streets
of Visoko are extremely steep. Most interestingly, Osmanagic was
told early on in his research that several home-owners in Visoko
had wanted to build cellars but could not because of a cement-like
layer hidden approximately one metre below the surface. During
the civil war of the 1990s, it was reported that the hill resonated
when hit by artillery fire: whereas artillery impact normally
produced a sound that lasted one to two seconds, when it hit the
hill it created a type of echo that lasted five to six seconds.
It was clear that the hill had something unusual about it.
most visited excavation site, about one-third of the way up the
hill, has revealed the presence of large blocks of conglomerate
between 50 and 100 centimetres below the surface. Similar excavations
have been conducted on the other sides of the pyramid; in each
case, a layer of this conglomerate has been found just below the
surface. It has been suggested that the entire hill once had a
six-metre-thick covering of conglomerate.
next to the main "tourist" site, however, the surface
layer, comprising approximately 40–80 cm of sand, has been
removed over a much bigger area to reveal a uniform, cement-like
(conglomerate) coating. This coating leaves little doubt in the
eyes of the visitor that it is indeed man-made. However, none
of the sceptics has ever referred to this section; instead, they've
focused on the much smaller and less interesting site nearby.
mentioned, Egyptian geologist Dr Ali Barakat has concluded that
these blocks are man-made. Moreover, laboratory analysis results
from the Civil Engineering Institute of Tuzla, made public by
geophysicist Dr Enes Ramovic in September 2006, have determined
that the cement comprising these blocks had been poured in situ.
In addition, a biology expert has maintained that the experiment
of planting trees on the hill 40 years ago should be deemed a
failure, as the tree roots have not been able to penetrate the
conglomerate (cement) layer. He argued that this suggests the
layer is man-made, as tree roots normally have no problem penetrating
with renewed interest in Visocica, the ancient Bosnian city on
its summit has recently been excavated. Here, it is clear that
the layer of conglomerate (cement) found lower down the slope
goes all the way to the top. Inside the structure, holes had been
dug so that posts could be erected, either for roofs or for a
mezzanine type of floor.
western side of the pyramid was partially excavated by the Pyramid
Foundation in 2006. Here, too, the team found large rectangular
slabs just under the surface, as well as clearly man-made stone
structures on the slope of the plateau. The overall impression
is of a paved access plateau to the pyramid—a plateau which
measures no less than 420 metres in length.
of a different nature on Visocica has been carried out by Russian
scientist Oleg Khavroshkin, of the Schmidt Institute of Earth
Physics at the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow. He performed
a geophysical analysis between 20 July and 4 August 2007. These
scans suggested "...the existence of hollow cavities below
the ground. These inhomogeneities were registered at Vratnice,
Pljesivica [Pyramid of the Moon] and the tunnels. In the vicinity
of the well shaft at the Pyramid of the Moon, clusters of frequencies
were observed, resulting probably from such nonhomogenous cavities."
In short, potential chambers.
Dr Muris Osmanagic, one of Bosnia's most eminent mining engineers
and professors (as well as the father of Sam Osmanagic), has concluded
in his book, About the Cultural Layer of the Bosnian Pyramid Builders,
that "...the only possible and rational solution is that
the great Pyramid of the Sun was a natural hill (composed of clay
marl), modified into a pyramid. In such a case, the coating layer
of concrete blocks make[s] up 6.28 per cent of the body of the
pyramid, composed of clay marl, or 2,6 mln m3 [2.6 million cubic
metres], [on a par with] the volume of the Khufu Pyramid stone
blocks. This was already within the realm of the possible for
this then highly developed civilisation."
a bit of theatre was produced when historian Dubravko Lovrenovic,
who heads the Bosnia– Herzegovina Commission for the Preservation
of National Monuments, stated on federal public television that
he would burn himself alive on top of Visocica if it turned out
to be a pyramid! Later, he denied he'd ever said this, but with
the help of Gavrilo Grahovac, the Federal Minister of Culture
and Sports, he stopped all excavation on the Pyramid of the Sun—perhaps
to make sure he didn't have to commit suicide in such a public
of the Moon
there is more than one pyramid here. So far, possibly seven pyramids
have been identified, though only two have been archaeologically
explored. "Only" 190 metres high and situated lower
in the valley is the Pyramid of the Moon. The foot of this pyramid
has become a second showcase of the Pyramid Foundation's work.
Here, excavations show a type of "floor" lying on sandstone,
followed by a second layer in approximately one-metre-high steps.
Nearby, the team probed the location where two faces of the pyramid
meet and found a free-standing stone structure. It is but one
fortuitous discovery in a series of enigmatic findings.
excavations on the top of the Pyramid of the Moon have revealed
the same type of "flooring". Archaeologists uncovered
a layer of topsoil with natural layers of sandstone below, but
separating both is a thin layer of rectangular stone blocks that
look similar in size to modern paving slabs. In substance, they
look as if they were poured and laid side by side. Interestingly,
some are broken, but these fractures are always random; their
"original shape" is always rectangular. Whether they
are natural or man-made remains a subject of intense debate, but,
if natural, it is clear that this is one of the oddest geological
formations on Earth, say leading geologists.
researcher Gabriele Lukacs has found that next to the Pyramid
of the Moon, right on a bank of the Fojnica River, there is a
quarry with an excellent example of perfectly cut sandstone blocks
still sticking out of the quarry wall. That the sandstone blocks
used in the pyramids were therefore cut by humans is the likeliest
excavations on the Pyramid of the Moon
Pyramid Foundation team has identified other potential sites of
interest in the valley. One is the Pyramid of the Dragon, which
together with the pyramids of the Moon and the Sun makes a perfect
equilateral triangle when lines are drawn connecting the apex
of each pyramid, each side having a length of 2,173 metres. No
work has been carried out on this third potential pyramid due
to the presence of land mines on its slope, but it is clear that
nature rarely creates such perfect triangles—especially
not when the structures consist of three-dimensional triangles:
observations by engineer Goran Cakic have revealed that there
is also a "solar show" occurring between the pyramids
of the Sun and the Moon. On 21 June 2008, he observed that the
shadow of the Pyramid of the Sun at noon formed a "parallel
pyramid" of the same height next to the Pyramid of the Moon.
Even more interesting is that on 20 August, between 18:30 and
19:30, the Pyramid of the Sun's shadow touched the entire Pyramid
of the Moon. Coincidence, perhaps, but more likely design—perhaps
part of a sacred light show that typifies many ancient cultures.
Opinions vary as to whether or not these hills are "pyramid
hills" or natural, but, as previously mentioned, a substantial
body of scientists now agrees that they have been artificially
doubt, however, does not exist for the nearby tunnels. The town
elders tell everyone who wants to hear that they used to enter
various tunnels in and around Visoko as kids, walking through
them from one side of the town to the other. When a factory was
constructed near the river, large cavities had to be filled in
with cement so that the premises could be built.
known tunnel is the Topuzovo Polje tunnel, which starts near the
River Bosna but has been filled in with debris. But, according
to historical accounts, this tunnel once led to the Pyramid of
date, two tunnel complexes have been properly explored. About
two kilometres from the Pyramid of the Sun is Ravne, a tunnel
system that so far has been mapped to a length of 300 metres.
Here, the main tunnel has various offshoots, running at 45- or
90-degree angles. In the past, these side tunnels were blocked
off with carefully positioned dry stone walls. Along the main
passageway, several large, enigmatic stones have been discovered;
their purpose remains a mystery. These stones contain a number
of inscriptions suggestive of a language.
side tunnel has stalagmites. Italian geologists Dr Dario Andretti
and Dr Luciano Leoni have been able to conclude that these would
have taken 2,600 to 2,900 years to form, which means the tunnel
can be dated to at least 1000 BCE—and most likely is older.
This date is of interest, for Dr Barakat's research indicates
that approximately 3,000 years ago an earthquake damaged at least
one face of the Pyramid of the Sun. Further evidence of such an
earthquake is visible on the Pyramid of the Moon, where the stone
"pavement" on the top shows obvious signs of folding.
It is clear that, circa 1000 BCE, something happened that partially
destroyed these structures, and this may explain why the Ravne
tunnel complex has been filled in with sand and why other tunnels
dry stone wall inside the Ravne tunnels, fencing off one of the
numerous side tunnels
far, excavations of the Ravne complex have brought some remarkable
results. In May 2007, a stone mould for cast metal tools was found
in the tunnels. Indeed, the Ravne complex shares several characteristics
with prehistoric mines elsewhere, such as at Llandudno, Wales.
There, too, side tunnels were blocked off by dry stone walls,
and "enigmatic" stones sit along the length of these
tunnels but, in this case, they were used in the mining process.
the Ravne tunnel complex had indeed been a mine, then it is likely
that its materials were used to create the cement coating of the
Pyramid of the Sun. Even sceptic Katherine Reece has argued on
the Internet that these tunnels are man-made—"ancient
mining tunnels dating from as long ago as 3500 BC when the area
was being mined for copper". It underlines that she accepts
that there was human activity here at that time, though she is
totally unwilling to entertain the notion that there is a pyramid
nearby. However, mining experts from Zenica, Banovici and Kakanj
have shown that there are no traces of minerals in these tunnels
and that, hence, the tunnels could never have been copper mines.
opponent who has come around on the tunnels issue is historian
and archaeology professor Dr Enver Imamovic, from the University
of Sarajevo, who at first claimed that the tunnels are natural
caves, even denying that there are side tunnels at 45 degrees—which
he said was a lie perpetrated by Osmanagic—but he also stated
that he had not visited them. In short, he was accusing someone
of lying, though he himself could not verify anything whatsoever!
Recently, though, he has accepted that these tunnels are not natural
tunnel of a different nature is the one that sits near the town's
two rivers, below the grounds of the KTK factory. Here, the walls
and ceilings are much more impressive and the layout itself more
interesting. These tunnels are unfortunately highly unstable and
prone to collapse and flooding, so little exploration has been
carried out. But what is known is that the tunnel runs in the
direction of the Pyramid of the Sun, dipping under the River Bosna
in the very heart of the town. This, of course, suggests careful
planning, but in ancient times such a construction was also an
excellent means for preserving and safeguarding the underground
complex from looters—so much so that, even today, exploring
these tunnels remains more than perilous.
just pyramids and tunnels
the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids, the tunnels so far have shown
that humans were definitely doing something, and logic dictates
that this work was connected with the pyramids. As such, the critics
hardly ever focus on the tunnels; but when they do, it is with
sweeping statements that try to mystify what is at heart not a
complex issue at all.
in September 2007, a team from the National Museum of Bosnia and
Herzegovina excavated the nearby site of Okoliste and concluded
that, circa 4700–4500 BCE, around 3,000 people lived in
the settlement—one of the largest ever found in Bosnia.
This shouldn't be surprising, seeing that Visoko is known to have
been one of Bosnia's most fertile lands and hence a cherished
location for settlers. From the development of civilisations elsewhere,
we know that such settlements often had a surplus workforce, which,
like elsewhere, might easily have been used to start a building
project—the Bosnian pyramids, perhaps?
is therefore a substantial pool of evidence from which one can
conclude that these hills have been artificially enhanced, and
that there were "civilised people" present at the right
time, in the right place, to have created these pyramids. However,
it is equally clear that a smoking gun, which would convince anyone,
remains to be found—but, equally, it might be just a spade's
In 2008, preliminary research at the neighbouring village of Ginje
brought about some further, very interesting, discoveries. Near
the village is a large hill, and next to it, in the valley below,
a small tumulus. On both the top of the hill and the tumulus,
perfectly rectangular stone slabs have been found that are on
a par with similar slabs found on and near the pyramids.
researcher Nenad Djurdjevic has noted in a report, available on
the Pyramid Foundation's website: "A few years after World
War II, from the roadside many of the megalithic blocks were still
visible lying on the top of the hill and its flanks, but...a great
number of them was gradually removed by villagers during later
decades and used for the construction of foundations, walls and
remaining conglomerate blocks are of enormous size (approximately
2 m x 1 m x 1 m) and weigh about four tonnes. On the hill itself,
it seems clear that these blocks once belonged to a stone structure
on its summit. The tumulus in the valley below has two stone slabs
lying next to each other; one is sandstone, the other conglomerate.
The obvious conclusion is that people moved these two stone blocks
next to one other.
Donje Mostre, a number of rectangular stone blocks have also been
found lining the road, and some are without any doubt man-made.
On 23 September 2008, a team from the University of Kiel, Germany,
found nearby a Neolithic artefact that has been dated to 6000–3000
BCE. The discovery was announced by Zilke Kujundzic, from the
National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina. She is actually one
of the main opponents of the pyramids project and has filed numerous
petitions for the Foundation's work to be stopped, claiming that
the entire project is a hoax. The small ceramic pyramid—in
some reports also referred to as a "Benben stone" because
of the apparent visual similarities with such stones in Egypt—is
a major discovery, showing that local people, millennia ago, created
ceramic objects in the shape of a pyramid.
pyramid-like objects have been found within Old Europe. Dr Gimbutas
wrote in The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe (1974) about how
the "...richly incised decoration on the Tisza altar from
Kökénydomd [in southeastern Hungary] may relate to
cosmogonical myths. Its triangular front is covered by meanders
and divided into two levels by a horizontal band of meandering
lines. In the centre of the lower register two eyes and a nose
are set in a triangle... Groups of parallel lines, arranged in
three, form panels along each side of the altar. The decorative
organisation suggests several levels of cosmic waters..."
In Egypt, for example, the Giza Plateau has been portrayed symbolically
as the primeval hill which rose from the Waters of Chaos. Considering
that the Tisza altar displays triangles (the two-dimensional rendering
of the three-dimensional pyramid), this at the very least shows
that Old Europe worked with the same cosmogonical material in
its myths as the other pyramid-building cultures.
dowsing expert Adrian Incledon-Webber, of the British Society
of Dowsers, has mapped the area and has drawn preliminary conclusions—namely,
that the pyramids sit on top of important underground waterways,
with three streams meeting under the apex of the Pyramid of the
Sun. He stated in email correspondence with me: "All holy
places attract water and then some are further enhanced by human
intervention, i.e., encouraging further water to cross at specific
points. The centres of stone circles, for instance, often have
three streams crossing at their centre, too."
As elsewhere, so in Bosnia it seems.
Ginje, there is a clear line of sight to the Pyramid of the Sun,
which appears on the northern horizon. North has been linked to
the World of the Dead, and in some cultures the sacred mountain
to the north was sometimes called the Storehouse of the Dead.
Devereux carried out detailed research into sacred landscapes
for his book Symbolic Landscapes (1992). He relates how mythology
and the landscape interact, and he gives the example of the so-called
"song lines" of the Australian Aborigines. Devereux
repeats what Yale University architectural historian Vincent Scully
observed in The Earth, the Temple, and the Gods (1979): that there
was an interaction between the temple and the surrounding landscape—something
he noted in Crete as well as in Greece. To quote Devereux on Scully:
"He felt that the ancient Greeks had 'developed an eye' for
'specific combinations of landscape features as expressive of
the Greek mainland, Mount Zara and the site of Mycenae form one
of ancient Greece's most important citadels. As Devereux describes
it, Mount Zara "appears in almost pyramidal form from the
palace on the summit of the citadel". As with Mount Zara,
so with Visocica.
the sight line from the structures in Ginje towards the Pyramid
of the Sun is not accidental is underlined by research carried
out by Nenad Djurdjevic. He highlights that only from the top
of the tumulus, which is only a few metres high, can the profile
of the Pyramid of the Sun be seen. When one stands in front of
the base of the tumulus, the pyramid is not visible. This suggests
that the tumulus was specifically constructed here and raised
to such height as to create a line of sight to the Pyramid of
the context of sacred landscapes, the complex at Ginje revealed,
during initial analysis, several key components that strongly
suggest that the site is part of a sacred ancient landscape focusing
on the Pyramid of the Sun. It means that the Bosnian Valley of
the Pyramids is therefore not only more extensive than previously
thought, but equally it is more than likely a carefully constructed
landscape, as initial observations (e.g., on the equidistance
between the pyramids of the Sun, Moon and Dragon) have already
dimensions and developments
all false perceptions and ego-trips aside, it is clear that the
Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids has much validity and will rock
the old pyramid paradigm in years to come. But the research project
will continue to be controversial for some time longer. What the
Foundation needs is more time—just as it took Howard Carter
several years before he located Tutankhamen's tomb. Progress is
slow, but obvious.
In time, the Bosnian pyramids will not only be added to the new
paradigm of pyramid structures that appear across the world, but
they will also reveal a new dimension to the Vinca culture and
show that the pyramids are European, rather than Egyptian, in
nature. Either way, a new page is being added in the development
That the pyramids might provide a new dimension to the Vinca culture
is a "cautious" approach. In fact, at ICBP 2008, British
archaeologist Andrew Lawler and Polish physicist Dr Anna Pazdur
presented their results from a radiocarbon-dating analysis done
on a piece of wood recovered from the Ravne tunnels. Though they
noted that it is a unique artefact (radiocarbon dating is preferentially
done on several artefacts, not just one, so that a range of dates
can be arrived at), they concluded that the piece of wood is 34,000
years old—which, in theory, could be the date when these
pyramids were created. If true (and only further digging will
tell), then the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids will not merely
change an outmoded paradigm but completely shatter it.
some are fighting to maintain the old paradigm, which is already
a lost cause. The pyramid landscape has changed, and walking through
Visoko one can see a glimpse of the future as well as a remnant
of the ancient past.
is the uncut version of the article published in NEXUS Magazine,
vol. 16, no. 1 (December 2008-January 2009).