a dirty word in archaeology. But despite not being liked, it remains
a fact that civilisations have abruptly ended. And the biggest
of all catastrophes seems to have occurred ca. 12,000 years ago.
New research, however, might argue in favour of Velikovskian –
if not Atlantean? – ideas.
centuries, the greatest catastrophe known to Western Europeans
was the biblical Deluge: a giant flood, claimed to have been brought
on by God himself, to wash away the sin of Mankind and start anew.
Working back from the few historical dates that are known to anchor
the biblical stories, this Deluge has been dated to ca. 2300 BC.
But even though biblical chronology is able to shed light on the
timeframe, it remains a fact that at that time or any other within
a time span of even a few thousands of years, there is no archaeological
or geological evidence for such a cataclysm – neither local
to the Middle East or on a global scale. In fact, archaeology
and historical records have made it apparent that Mankind as a
whole has had “clean sailing” for at least ten millennia.
Indeed, it now appears more likely that the “Deluge”
did not end a “physical” world, but that it signalled
the end of a period of time, defined by the movements of the sky.
In short, the Deluge seems to have wiped clean the “slate
of heaven”, rather than the “plains of the earth”
the appeal of Christian catastrophism has declined, scientific
catastrophism has risen, the demise of the dinosaurs no doubt
capturing most of the imagination. Still, archaeologists remain
extremely reluctant to take catastrophes – at a relatively
local level – into consideration as to how some civilisations
or societies have perished. Even the gigantic explosion of Thera
is rarely seen as the sole cause as to why the Minoan civilisation
Amongst the various dates for a major – global – catastrophe,
none has been as popular as “ca. 10,000 BC”, which
fortuitously coincides with Plato’s story of Atlantis, a
civilisation before all others. It was said to have been washed
away in a series of deluges, though not before the internal social
coherence of this society was weakened by wars and a moral decline.
Apparently, for we do not even know where Atlantis was supposedly
located, and hence whether it ever existed and was destroyed cannot
even be addressed.
within the field of alternative history, the date of ca. 10,000
BC has remained very popular, largely thanks to two theories.
One is based on Edgar Cayce’s prophecy – or rather,
reinterpretation of history – which is that refugees from
Atlantis had built the Great Pyramid and the Sphinx, and that
the latter also contained – inside or nearby – a so-called
Hall of Records, which itself contained proof of the claims made
by Cayce about this prediluvian society. “Evidence”
for the great antiquity of the Sphinx has since become the obsession
of certain researchers, many of whom favour the interpretation
of Robert Schoch, who has pointed out that one wall of the Sphinx
enclosure shows signs of weathering that is not conform to what
we “know” about Egypt’s climatological history.
Of course, a seldom-posed question is whether the climatological
timeline could simply be wrong.
Add to this the observations by Robert Bauval, who claims that
the gaze of the Sphinx stares towards the Constellation of Leo
and that the entire complex is a “timestamp” of the
period ca. 10,400 BC. With these two ingredients, it is easy to
mix a theory suggesting that around the time when Atlantis was
destroyed, ca. 10,400 BC, refugees from that great continent came
to Egypt, settled, and began a building project that involved
the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid, which is somehow a remnant of
the scientific knowledge of that lost civilisation. As appealing
as these theories sound, none of these have ever taken the Pyramid
of Khafre – so close to the Great Pyramid – into the
equation… a major omission in any theory put forward about
the Gizeh plateau, for its construction is on par with that of
the Great Pyramid.
much of the appeal of a 10,000 BC catastrophe comes from the fact
that the Earth did see a major catastrophe in 10,000 BC. That
period roughly marked the end of the Last Ice Age, whereby it
is known that ice melted and consequently water levels rose. Dare
anyone call it a Deluge?
It is also a fact that at the end of the Ice Age, species like
the woolly mammoth, which roamed the North American content, died
extremely sudden. In fact, an often quoted statement about their
demise is that some mammoths in Siberia were found to be frozen,
having undigested food in their stomachs. Clear evidence –
in the eyes of some – of their cataclysmic demise. However,
a more detailed study reveals that these mammoths did not “freeze-dry”,
as some claim, but were mummified – a process that is not
as instantaneous as freeze-drying.
it remains a fact that the end of the Ice Age did away with some
species, including the woolly mammoth. Most interestingly, the
climate record shows that while the Ice Age was drawing to a close,
an event occurred that resulted in an extension of the Ice Age
with a further 1300 years. What this event was, remains a matter
of intense scientific speculation. But geophysicist Allen West
has proposed that an asteroid or comet exploded just above the
Earth’s surface. The claim seems to have come straight out
of Immanuel Velikovsky’s books and was thus treated with
the same disrespect – the only difference, it seemed was
that Velikovsky had the audacity to let his scenario play itself
out in historical times, whereas West opted for the – only
slightly – safer period known as prehistory.
West argued that the explosion occurred over Canada and created
a shock wave that set large parts of the northern hemisphere ablaze.
And that a truly global, earthshaking if not shattering event
occurred, is shown by the presence of diamonds in Ohio and Indiana.
Diamonds, it seems, are not merely a girl’s best friend
– they might be the same for catastrophists – whether
male or female.
Indeed, Ken Tankersley, professor of Anthropology at the University
of Cincinnati, studied diamonds recovered in Ohio and Indiana
and his analyses conclusively show that these originated from
the diamond fields region of Canada. At first, however, Tankersley
was sceptical of West’s catastrophic approach, himself preferring
the likelihood that glaciers had brought down these diamonds –
as well as gold and silver – from the Great Lakes. He then
quickly changed his mind, when he realised that this conclusion
was inconsistent with the evidence. For these diamonds to be located
so far south requires a truly cataclysmic event. Like, as West
argues, a comet impact.
believes that the object that exploded over Canada was a three-mile
wide comet, creating an explosion that West compares to being
10,000 Tunguska explosions going off at once. With such a powerful
explosion over an area where the soil contained diamonds, gold
and silver, it is assumed that the blast threw these metals and
diamonds into the sky, whereby some of them fell down further
south, in Indiana and Ohio. He believes such a shower might have
continued for several months after the initial strike. “Some
of them you couldn’t see, and animals would’ve been
breathing them in,” West states. “But other ones would
clearly have been visible. They might’ve even hurt if they
hit you.” The larger diamonds were visible to the naked
eye and dropped like hail stones within seconds of the blasts.
For West, it is clear what caused the mass extinction of the woolly
mammoth: the heat from the blast set the air on fire. North America’s
grassland, the furs of animals, the hair and clothing of humans
– everything was set ablaze, and would soon die. But it
were not merely mammoths that died. Another casualty of this tremendous
explosion was man itself: the Clovis culture, a Stone Age culture
that had only relatively recently arrived on the American content,
ceased to exist as a consequence of this explosion too.
global this catastrophe was, remains unknown. Going back to the
Middle East, it is a fact that, even though there is no evidence
of an Atlantis or a 12,000 year old Sphinx, it is a fact that
ca. 10,000 BC, there were the first signs of civilisations, especially
on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea.
It is the timeframe when Jericho was founded, as well as the first
building phase of the temple complex at Göbekli Tepe. Elsewhere,
there is evidence of harvesting, as well as the cultivation of
figs in the Jordan River valley: in short, the earliest signs
of that great new human adventure that would become civilisation.
Many scientists consider these sites to be the cradles of civilisation,
but one can only wonder whether they were merely the remnants
– refugees – of a catastrophe. Veritable descendents
of Noah that might have survived a Deluge?